cannabis strains and gross phenotypes

Discussion in 'Strains and Seeds' started by cesarhorta, Sep 22, 2007.

  1. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    im start to talk about gross phenotypes of cannabis strains and next im make a list and talk about of the most know imported cannabis strains.
    so im start with gross phenotypes:

    Gross Phenotypes of Cannabis Strains

    The gross phenotype or general growth form is determined by size, root production, branching pattern, sex, maturation, and floral characteristics. Most imported varieties have characteristic gross phenotypes although there tend to be occasional rare examples of almost every phenotype in nearly every variety. This indicates the complexity of genetic control determining gross phenotype. Hybrid crosses between imported pure varieties were the beginning of nearly every domestic strain of Cannabis. In hybrid crosses, some dominant characteristics from each parental variety are exhibited in various combinations by the F1 offspring. Nearly all of the offspring will resemble both parents and very few will resemble only one parent. This sounds like it is saying a lot, but this F1 hybrid generation is far from true-breeding and the subsequent F2 generation will exhibit great variation, tending to look more like one or the other of the original imported parental varieties, and will also exhibit recessive traits not apparent in either of the original parents. If the F1 offspring are desirable plants it will be difficult to continue the hybrid traits in subsequent generations. Enough of the original F1 hybrid seeds are produced so they may be used year after year to pro-duce uniform crops of desirable plants.

    Phenotypes and Characteristics of Imported Strains

    Following is a list of gross phenotypes and characteristics for many imported strains of Cannabis.
    1. Fiber Strain Gross Phenotypes (hemp types)
    2. Drug Strain Gross Phenotypes:

    a) Colombia - highland, lowland (marijuana)
    b) Congo - (marijuana)
    c) Hindu Kush - Afghanistan and Pakistan (hashish)
    d) Southern India - (ganja marijuana)
    e) Jamaica - Carribean hybrids
    f) Kenya - Kisumu (dagga marijuana)
    g) Lebanon - (hashish)
    h) Malawi, Africa - Lake Nyasa (dagga marijuana)
    i) Mexico - Michoacan, Oaxaca, Guerrero (marijuana)
    j) Morocco - Rif mountains (kif marijuana and hashish)
    h) Nepal - wild (ganja marijuana and hashish)
    l) Russian - ruderalis (uncultivated)
    m) South Africa - (dagga marijuana)
    n) Southeast Asia - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam (ganja marijuana)

    3. Hybrid Drug Phenotypes:

    a) Creeper Phenotype
    b) Huge Upright Phenotype

    so i have to make this thread by parts.

    In general the F1 and F2 pure-bred offspring of these imported varieties are more similar to each other than they are to other varieties and they are termed pure strains. However, it should be remembered that these are average. Gross phenotypes and recessive variations within each trait will occur. In addition, these representations are based on unpruned plants growing in ideal conditions and stress will alter the gross phenotype. Also, the protective environment of a greenhouse tends to obscure the difference between different strains. This section presents information that is used in the selection of pure strains for breeding.

    1. Fiber Strain Gross Phenotypes Fiber strains are characterized as tall, rapidly maturing, limbless plants which are often monoecious. This growth habit has been selected by generations of fiber-producing farmers to facilitate forming long fibers through even growth and maturation. Monoecious strains mature more evenly than dioecious strains, and fiber crops are usually not grown long enough to set seed which interferes with fiber production. Most varieties of fiber Cannabis originate in the northern temperate climates of Europe, Japan, China and North America. Several strains have been selected from the prime hemp growing areas and offered commercially over the last fifty years in both Europe and America. Escaped fiber strains of the midwestern United States are usually tall, skinny, relatively poorly branched, weakly flowered, and low in cannabinoid production. They represent an escaped race of Cannabis sativa hemp. Most fiber strains contain CBD as the primary cannabinoid and little if any THC.

    next time i start with colombian strains, i hope you people enjoy this valuable info about cannabis botany for the true breeding. until next time, i´ll back soon.:thumbsup:
  2. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    like i promise here i go:

    a) Colombia - (0 to 10 north latitude)

    Colombian Cannabis originally could be divided into two basic strains: one from the low-altitude humid coastal areas along the Atlantic near Panama, and the other from the more arid mountain areas inland from Santa Marta. More recently, new areas of cultivation in the interior plateau of southern central Colombia and the highland valleys stretching southward from the Atlantic coast have become the primary areas of commercial export Cannabis cultivation. Until recent years high quality Cannabis was available through the black market from both coastal and highland Colombia. Cannabis was introduced to Colombia just over 100 years ago, and its cultivation is deeply rooted in tradition. Cultivation techniques often involve transplanting of selected seedlings and other individual attention. The production of "la mona amarilla" or gold buds is achieved by girdling or removing a strip of bark from the main stem of a nearly mature plant, thereby restricting the flow of water, nutrients, and plant products. Over several days the leaves dry up and fall off as the flowers slowly die and turn yellow. This produces the highly prized "Colombian gold" so prevalent in the early to middle 1970s (Partridge 1973). Trade names such as "punta roja" (red tips [pistils] ), "Cali Hills," "choco," "lowland," "Santa Marta gold," and "purple" give us some idea of the color of older varieties and the location of cultivation.

    In response to an incredible demand by America for Cannabis, and the fairly effective control of Mexican Cannabis importation and cultivation through tightening border security and the use of Paraquat, Colombian farmers have geared up their operations. Most of the marijuana smoked in America is imported from Colombia. This also means that the largest number of seeds available for domes tic cultivation also originate in Colombia. Cannabis agri-business has squeezed out all but a few small areas where labor-intensive cultivation of high quality drug Cannabis such as "Ia mona amarilla" can continue. The fine marijuana of Colombia was often seedless, but commercial grades are nearly always well seeded. As a rule today, the more remote highland areas are the centers of commercial agriculture and few of the small farmers remain. It is thought that some highland farmers must still grow fine Cannabis, and occasional connoisseur crops surface. The older seeds from the legendary Colombian strains are now highly prized by breeders. In the heyday of "Colombian gold" this fine cerebral marijuana was grown high in the mountains. Humid lowland marijuana was characterized by stringy, brown, fibrous floral clusters of sedative narcotic high. Now highland marijuana has become the commercial product and is characterized by leafy brown floral clusters and sedative effect. Many of the unfavorable characteristics of imported Colombian Cannabis result from hurried commercial agricultural techniques combined with poor curing and storage. Colombian seeds still contain genes favoring vigorous growth and high THC production. Colombian strains also contain high levels of CBD and CBN, which could account for sedative highs and result from poor curing and storage techniques. Domestic Colombian strains usually lack CBD and CBN. The commercial Cannabis market has brought about the eradication of some local strains by hybridizing with commercial strains.

    Colombian strains appear as relatively highly branched conical plants with a long upright central stem, horizontal limbs and relatively short internodes. The leaves are characterized by highly serrated slender leaflets (7-11) in a nearly complete to overlapping circular array of varying shades of medium green. Colombian strains usually flower late in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and may fail to mature flowers in colder climates. These strains favor the long equatorial growing seasons and often seem insensitive to the rapidly decreasing daylength during autumn in temperate latitudes. Because of the horizontal branching pattern of Colombian strains and their long growth cycle, pistillate plants tend to produce many flowering clusters along the entire length of the stem back to the central stalk. The small flowers tend to produce small, round, dark, mottled, and brown seeds. Imported and domestic Colombian Cannabis often tend to be more sedative in psychoactivity than other strains. This may be caused by the synergistic effect of THC with higher levels of CBD or CBN. Poor curing techniques on the part of Colombian farmers, such as sun drying in huge piles resembling com post heaps, may form CBN as a degradation product of THC. Colombian strains tend to make excellent hybrids with more rapidly maturing strains such as those from Central and North America.

    next time is the congo and hindu kush range, Cannabis indica (Afghanistan and Pakistan) - (30 to 37 north latitude).:thumbsup:
    Last edited: Sep 22, 2007
  3. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    here what i promise, more info.

    b) Congo - (5 north to 5 south latitude)

    Most seeds are collected from shipments of commercial grade seeded floral clusters appearing in Europe.

    c) Hindu Kush Range - Cannabis indica (Afghanistan and Pakistan) - (30 to 37 north latitude)

    This strain from the foothills (up to 3,200 meters [10,000 feetj) of the Hindu Kush range is grown in small rural gardens, as it has been for hundreds of years, and is used primarily for the production of hashish. In these areas hashish is usually made from the resins covering the pistil late calyxes and associated leaflets. These resins are re moved by shaking and crushing the flowering tops over a silk screen and collecting the dusty resins that fall off the plants. Adulteration and pressing usually follow in the production of commercial hashish. Strains from this area are often used as type examples for Cannabis indica. Early maturation and the belief by clandestine cultivators that this strain may be exempt from laws controlling Cannabis sativa and indeed may be legal, has resulted in its proliferation throughout domestic populations of "drug" Cannabis. Names such as "hash plant" and "skunk weed" typify its acrid aroma reminiscent of "primo" hashish from the high valleys near Mazar-i-Sharif, Chitral, and Kandahar in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    This strain is characterized by short, broad plants with thick, brittle woody stems and short internodes. The main stalk is usually only four to six feet tall, but the relatively unbranched primary limbs usually grow in an upright fashion until they are nearly as tall as the central stalk and form a sort of upside-down conical shape. These strains are of medium size, with dark green leaves having 5 to 9 very wide, coarsely serrated leaflets in a circular array. The lower leaf surface is often lighter in color than the upper surface. These leaves have so few broad coarse leaflets that they are often compared to a maple leaf. Floral clusters are dense and appear along the entire length of the primary limbs as very resinous leafy balls. Most plants produce flowering clusters with a low calyx-to-leaf ratio, but the inner leaves associated with the calyxes are usually liberally encrusted with resin. Early maturation and extreme resin production is characteristic of these strains. This may be the result of acclimatization to northern temperate latitudes and selection for hashish production. The acrid smell associated with strains from the Hindu Kush appears very early in the seedling stage of both staminate and pistillate individuals and continues throughout the life of the plant. Sweet aromas do often develop but this strain usually loses the sweet fragrance early, along with the clear, cerebral psychoactivity.

    Short stature, early maturation, and high resin production make Hindu Kush strains very desirable for hybridizing and indeed they have met with great popularity. The gene pool of imported Hindu Kush strains seems to be dominant for these desirable characteristics and they seem readily passed on to the F1 hybrid generation. A fine hybrid may result from crossing a Hindu Kush variety with a late-maturing, tall, sweet strain from Thailand, India, or Nepal. This produces hybrid offspring of short stature, high resin content, early maturation, and sweet taste that will mature high quality flowers in northern climates. Many hybrid crosses of this type are made each year and are currently cultivated in many areas of North America. Hindu Kush seeds are usually large, round, and dark grey or black in coloring with some mottling.

    hope you like this post, next time i talk about India Central, Southern - Kerala, Mysore, and Madras regions (10 to 20 north latitude). i like to hear some opinions.
  4. ProGroWannabe

    ProGroWannabe Registered+

    Great info! But, ummm, if your gonna use someones research, you should cite your sources. Please don't take this as me being mean. I'm writing this with no attitude whatsoever. See--->:D. But, it is my belief, that these articles were written by someone else. I wouldn't even say anything about it, but it's clear your taking credit for someone elses work. Plagiarism is a prosecutable offense. Here OBVIOUSLY, that would be the least of your worries. But try to refrain from doing this elsewhere, cuz it can get you in trouble.

    Before you flame me, it's the speech pattern that gives it away as not being yours.
    "im start to talk about gross phenotypes of cannabis strains and next im make a list and talk about of the most know imported cannabis strains.
    so im start with gross phenotypes:"

    That doesn't match things like this:"Monoecious strains mature more evenly than dioecious strains, and fiber crops are usually not grown long enough to set seed which interferes with fiber production."

    Again, I'm not doggin ya, but you can't take credit for this if it's not really your info. Please keep the articles coming. They're great! Just tell us what source it came from and who wrote it, if you know who the author was.:thumbsup:
  5. gt420z

    gt420z Registered+

    im start to talk about gross phenotypes of cannabis strains and next im make a list and talk about of the most know imported cannabis strains.
    so im start with gross phenotypes:
    :wtf: bwahahhaahh
  6. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    hello and i do not want take credits from someone else i simple dont know who is the source and i take and save all this info just because i think is great info to share with people that want to know all of this, believe me if i know the author i write down, but i swear i dont know. who give me this info have this write down in some old papers. THIS IS NOT FOR TAKE CREDIT OF SOMEONE ELSE WORK, BELIEVE IT. i simple dont know the source.
    like i say next time is indian strains.:thumbsup: but this take hard work to compilate all this info, just tell me if you want them keep coming or not.
  7. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    so i am from portugal and i talk not much of english, my mother language is portuguese and i try to not write wrong english. mas se quiseres falo contigo em portugues meu grande nabo. you understand? i maybe write with some errors but if you people understand, my work is just good.

    the great enemy of human kind is the ignorance. and this is just for people interested in marijuana botany and not for gators.
  8. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    here what i find about indian strains

    d) India Centra1 Southern - Kerala, Mysore, and Madras regions (10 to 20 north latitude)

    Ganja (or flowering Cannabis tops) has been grown in India for hundreds of years. These strains are usually grown in a seedless fashion and are cured, dried, and smoked as marijuana instead of being converted to hashish as in many Central Asian areas. This makes them of considerable interest to domestic Cannabis cultivators wishing to reap the benefits of years of selective breeding for fine ganja by Indian farmers. Many Europeans and Americans now live in these areas of India and ganja strains are finding their way into domestic American Cannabis crops. Ganja strains are often tall and broad with a central stalk up to 12 feet tall and spreading highly-branched limbs. The leaves are medium green and made up of 7 to 11 leaf lets of moderate size and serration arranged in a circular array. The frond-like limbs of ganja strains result from extensive compound branching so that by the time floral clusters form they grow from tertiary or quaternary limbs. This promotes a high yield of floral clusters which in ganja strains tend to be small, slender, and curved. Seeds are usually small and dark. Many spicy aromas and tastes occur in Indian ganja strains and they are extremely resinous and psychoactive. Medicinal Cannabis of the late 1800s and early 1900s was usually Indian ganja.
    next is jamaica, enjoy.:thumbsup:
  9. ProGroWannabe

    ProGroWannabe Registered+

    Right on cesar! The misunderstanding came from when you wrote "Im start to talk about"....
    But, by all means please keep them coming! Great info. And thank you for sharing these papers.
  10. GoldenGoblin

    GoldenGoblin Registered+

    I found some of what he typed in here after a paragraph search in google
  11. cesarhorta

    cesarhorta Registered+

    so who write this? can you tell me. and that one is not complete.
    it say it is a study made by robert c.clarke, is this guy that write all this? and who he is? i just say who write all this info knows great deal of marijuana botany. but i find this introduction in my papers: Mel Frank author, Marijuana Growers’ Guide. but i dont think he is the author of all this stuff that i have write down, i just think this is been made by several people. ok so you save me work, but that one is not complete. my own have much more info and pages. but i dont care anymore. i have to much info about marijuana and for me that is great. so if you want, close this one stinky.

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